George Westinghouse Air Brake
Patents and Inventions
Invented by George Westinghouse in 1869 (US patent No. 88929)






The air brake was invented by George Westinghouse in 1869 (US patent No. 88929)

Title Primary Class Description Inventor Assignee Issue Date Patent No.
Improvement in steam-power-brake devices 303/48 Power car-brake for railways-cars to be operated by compressed air, or other compressible fluid, with the use of an auxiliary engine for compressing the air into the reservoir from which it is conducted by pipes and applied to operating the brakes, via brake-cylinders and pistons, attached to each car. George Westinghouse, Jr.
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April 13, 1869 US0088929
Improvement in atmospheric car-brake pipes 137/614.04 For railways atmospheric car brakes (vacuum brakes); ease in coupling and uncoupling the pipes; a union when they are coupled together sufficiently firm to resist an ordinary strain, but still not so firm but that if a car leaves the track, the pipe coupling may also separate without injury or damage. George Westinghouse, Jr.
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November 29, 1870 US0109695
Improvement in steam-power car brake apparatus 303/68 A steam siphon pump to enable the brake piston to be drawn back immediately without any delay when the brake is released by the brakeman and the brake shoe is released or let off, immediately, as desired (improvement on patent 88929). George Westinghouse, Jr.
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June 6, 1871 US0115667
Improvement in valve devices for steam-power air-brake couplings 251/149.1 Valve devices for coupling pipes of steam-power air-brakes of railway cars (improvement of patent No. 88929, 109695) George Westinghouse, Jr.
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July 4, 1871 US0116655
Improvement in steam-power air-brake devices 188/153R improvement on patent No. 88929 George Westinghouse, Jr.
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August 8, 1871 US0117841
Improvement in relief valves for steam air-brake cylinders 303/69 Letting the air escape suddenly and rapidly from the brake cylinder, so that the brake shall be let off with equal suddenness and rapidity (see also patent No. 115667) George Westinghouse, Jr.
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March 5, 1872 US0124403
Improvement in steam-power and air-brake signals 246/168 A double line of brake-pipes to ensure functionality in case of damage to one of them. In case, when a car disconnects by accident air will be admitted freely to the brake cylinders; the conductor and engineer may communicate signals or orders to each other by the use of the brake pipes and compressed air. George Westinghouse, Jr.
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March 5, 1872 US0124404
Improvement in steam air-brakes 303/28 Improvement in steam-power air-brakes for railway use. Providing each car (carriage) with an auxiliary air reservoir which shall be filled from the main reservoir and which can be used independently for each car. George Westinghouse, Jr.
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March 5, 1872 US0124405
Improvement in steam and air-brakes 303/28 Improvements on patent No. 124404, 124405 (Mistakenly, they are referenced as 122404 and 122405) George Westinghouse, Jr.
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December 24, 1872 US0134177
Improvement in steam and air brakes 188/200 Taking up automatically the slack motion caused by the wearing of the brake shoe of railway cars George Westinghouse, Jr.
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December 24, 1872 US0134178
Improvement in steam-power-brake couplings 285/71 Improvement in air-brake-coupling wherein each half shall have male and female parts of the next coupling. With couplings so made, there will be no occasion to branch the pipes, and the half coupling on either end of either car will couple onto any other half-coupling on the train. (improvement on patent No. 117841) George Westinghouse, Jr.
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March 11, 1873 US0136631
Improvement in valve device for steam and air-brakes 303/33 An improved triple valve that enables the flow of air or other fluids into reservoirs connected to each railway carriage - a continuous pressure of air in the brake pipe is kept open to each reservoir and closed to the brake cylinder but kept open from the latter to the external atmosphere. George Westinghouse, Jr.
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May 13, 1873 US0138827
Improvement in steam-power air-brake devices 188/153R Reissue of patent No. 117841 George Westinghouse, Jr.
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July 29, 1873 RE5505
Improvement in valve devices for fluid brakes 303/33 An improved triple valve that enables the regulated flow of air or other fluids into reservoirs connected to each railway carriage and by that enables any degree of brake force applied less than the maximum possible. George Westinghouse, Jr.
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August 12, 1873 US0141685
Improvement in steam and air brakes 303/28 Improvement of valves pipes and apparatus, whereby compressed air could be made to operate brakes and communicate signals in railway train. Improvements on patent No. 124404, 124405, 117841 (Mistakenly, the first two are referenced as 122404 and 122405) George Westinghouse, Jr.
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October 28, 1873 US0144006
Improvement in slack-taking-up apparatus for steam and air brakes 188/200 Improvement in the taking-up apparatus (improvement on patent No. 134178) George Westinghouse, Jr.
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November 11, 1873 US0144582
Improvement in valves for fluid brake pipes 303/33 Improved triple valve with combination of a leak-valve (improvement of patent No. 141685) George Westinghouse, Jr.
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April 21, 1874 US0149901
Improvement in tripping apparatus for air brakes 246/171 Improvement in apparatus for automatically applying the brakes to the wheels of railway cars (improvement on patent No. 124404) George Westinghouse, Jr.
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October 27, 1874 US0156323
Improvement in automatic air escape for railway air brakes 303/69 Immediate escape of the compressed air from the brake cylinder after it has done its work instead of passing it back to the three way cock on the locomotive Walter J. Ford; George Westinghouse, Jr.; Thomas W. Welsh
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April 27, 1875 US0162465
Improvement in air valves for power brakes 303/33 The improvement is particularly designed for use as part of a system of brake apparatus known as “Westinghouse Automatic Brake” and consists improvements of compressed air regulated flow both as to direction and amount to and from the air reservoir and brake cylinders. George Westinghouse, Jr.
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October 5, 1875 US0168359
Improvement in air-brake valves 303/33 Improvement on patent No. 168359 George Westinghouse, Jr.
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January 11, 1876 US0172064
Improvement in railway air-brake apparatus 303/32 This improvement relates to automatic or safety brakes. Each brake cylinder is, while the brakes are off, kept with compressed air at the same density or degree of compression as the brake pipe and air reservoir, but on reduction of such pressure on one side of the piston the equilibrium shall be destroyed and the brake will be applied by the action of the compressed air from the reservoir. George Westinghouse, Jr.
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April 22, 1879 US0214603
Improvement in fluid-pressure brake apparatus 303/129 Additions to fluid pressure brake apparatus, whereby it is rendered more effective and uniform and regular in its action by connecting an escape valve, to the conduit pipes, which operates automatically according to the train speed when the brakes are applied. George Westinghouse, Jr.
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August 5, 1879 US0218149
Improvement in regulating-valves for automatic brakes 303/33 Improvement in triple valve for fluid pressure automatic brakes for railways trains (improvement on patents No. 168359, 172064) George Westinghouse, Jr.
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October 14, 1879 US0220556
Air-brake apparatus 243,415 The two systems of air-brake apparatus known as the “Westinghouse Compressed Airbrake” and the “Westinghouse Automatic-Brake” may be combined in use and operation at the same time and on the same train. George Westinghouse, Jr.
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June 28, 1881 US0243415
Air-brake-strainer attachment 55/419 To prevent dust, dirt and iron filings from the triple valve. George Westinghouse, Jr.
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August 2, 1881 US0245109
Air-brake pressure-regulator 303/79 The entire escape of compressed air from the supply of several brake cylinders may be prevented or only a portion of the brake-pressure be exhausted, so when recharging the several auxiliary air reservoirs, the brakes cannot be entirely released, and the remaining pressure will be enough in order to prevent the train from passing, dangerously, out of the control of the engineer. George Westinghouse, Jr.
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January 9, 1883 US0270528
Fluid pressure regulator 251/28 Fluid pressure regulator for use in air-brake apparatus, for the purpose of regulating steam supply to the air pumps by means of the air pressure in the main reservoir or in the brake pipe. George Westinghouse, Jr.
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June 26, 1883 US0280269
Fluid pressure automatic brake mechanism 303/39 A novel combination of a brake-pipe, auxiliary reservoir, and brake cylinder; a direct connection from the brake pipe to the brake cylinder George Westinghouse, Jr.
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March 29, 1887 US0360070
Fluid pressure automatic brake mechanism 303/39 The application of brakes with great rapidity and full force when required. George Westinghouse, Jr.
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January 24, 1888 US0376837
Fluid Meter 73/238 A meter in which only a comparatively small percentage of the pressure of the fluid to be measured is required to actuate the measuring devices and in which the movement of the measuring-receptacles is continuous and progressive to prevent a complete stop or change of direction which is ordinarily involved in meters of the class employing reciprocating parts. George Westinghouse, Jr.; Chauncey N. Dutton
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March 26, 1889 US0400420
Fluid pressure automatic-brake mechanism 303/29 The employment of either of two fluid-pressure conducting-pipes, which transmit fluid under relatively high and low pressure, respectively, as a train-brake pipe and a train signaling pipe for the performance of the function of the other and vice versa, when such change my become requisite. George Westinghouse, Jr.
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April 8, 1890 US0425059
Fluid pressure automatic brake 303/68 Controlling the movement of trains when descending long and heavy grades, by automatically effecting a release of pressure in the brake cylinders by and in accordance with outwards or forwards movements of the draw-bar resultant from the draft from the engine hauling the train. George Westinghouse, Jr.
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October 7, 1890 US0437740
Fluid pressure automatic-brake 303/2 Use on high speed and express trains to provide a double brake system when its ordinary fluid-pressure automatic- brake system may in cases of emergency or running at exceptionally high speeds be reinforced or increased by that of a supplemental auxiliary brake apparatus which can replace the ordinary system in case of dysfunction. George Westinghouse, Jr. The Westinghouse Air Brake Company, Pennsylvania August 23, 1898 US0609484
Pipe coupling device 285/68 Hand operated pipe couplings for connecting up air, steam, and other pipes between cars on railway trains - pipe coupling comprising two counterpart heads or half sections each having lateral port openings and flanges with locking ribs. George Westinghouse, Jr. The Westinghouse Air Brake Company, Pennsylvania June 3, 1913 US1063755
Patents Predating George Westinghouse
Title Primary Class Description Inventor Assignee Issue Date Patent No.
Improvements to steam locomotive carriages -- A simple steam cylinder and piston which rod is connected through a system of levers to a cam brake Robert Stephenson
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October 7, 1833 GB6484
Mode of connecting pipes from steam-brakes 137/349 Improvement in the connection between the pipes which convey the steam or air under the cars to operate on pistons connected to several brakes. Whereby the disconnected ends of the pipes are always caused to be closed, but when the pipes are connected there is always an open communication between them. Wendell Wright
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January 16, 1855 US0012263
Improvement in railroad brakes 303/12 Atmospherical railway car brake (vacuum brake) Nehemiah Hodge
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June 12, 1860 US0028670


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